Tax Break

John Fisher, international tax consultant

Archive for the tag “tax avoidance”

Make it a double, Paddy

"Look. This one doesn't bend."

“Look. This one doesn’t bend.”

The scene in Disney’s Snow White, where the wicked witch entices the heroine with a poisoned apple, has fueled the nightmares of generations of kiddies since it first saw the light of day (or should that be ‘the dark of night’?) in 1937. I had double the reason to be terrified as my parents had an old acquaintance  – the mother of a friend – who, I was genuinely convinced, must be related to the evil lady.  Her name was Megan, born sometime in the last decade of the 19th century. She had masses of unruly hair that matched her nicotine-stained, spindly fingers. And she spoke in an Irish smoker’s brogue. Bed-wetting material, par excellence.

Half a century later, I can still hear my parents talking about her having been in the “Post Office”. For years, my mind’s eye saw her going from house to house delivering mail and, when some unfortunate maiden opened the door, offering her a juicy red apple. It was only when she had died, and I had progressed to a higher degree of cognitive reasoning, that I understood that she had been an Irish Volunteers (later, IRA)  operative in the 1916 Easter Rising. She was in the General Post Office on O’Connell Street when almost the entire leadership was carted off by the British and put in front of a firing squad.

Although the Easter Rising served to unite the people of Ireland in the cause of independence, it was a bit daft really. The arms the rebels were counting on were intercepted by the British, and they knew that they didn’t have a chance, but they went ahead anyway.

The Irish are big on miracles

The Irish are big on miracles

In the spirit of 1916, over the last 30 years successive Irish governments have proven adept at blundering almost thoughtlessly into madcap schemes for economic progress, like the 12.5% corporate tax rate;  miraculously they keep pulling them off. They managed to build a Tiger economy without an ounce of local initiative, relying on US multinationals and extremely generous European Union aid. True, they were hit quite badly by the global financial meltdown, but they pulled out of that faster than any of the other crisis countries.

It would appear that the luck of the Irish may be running out (or, maybe, not). The EU Commission is investigating whether tax agreements with the Irish Government brought  Apple and 4,000 juicy jobs to the depressed area of Cork. For the first time, the Commission is using the argument of ‘State Aid’ to attack a tax break (Fiat and Starbucks are getting it in the neck elsewhere).

The alleged scheme is annoyingly simple (almost, crass) and has been an open secret (but not necessarily in relation to Apple)  to international tax advisers for years. Referred to as the ‘Double Irish’, it takes advantage of two bits of Irish Blarney in local law. Firstly, as opposed to just about every other nation no longer in loin cloths, Ireland did not have  significant Transfer Pricing rules until recently. Secondly, Irish law defines tax residency of a company purely on the basis of management and control (most countries today have an additional test of place of incorporation).

Once those fiercely permissive non-rules were in place, it was time to pour the Guinness. Apple (and there will be plenty more US companies joining the wake, if the EU pull this one-off), is, it appears,  accused of  establishing two companies in Ireland. One, subject to the standard astronomical rate of 12.5%, is alleged to have carried on the business. Lest Apple be saddled with such an unacceptable tax rate, that company had an agreement to pay royalties to the other Irish company (it’s subsidiary) at a Disney fantasy rate. The second company, however, was managed and controlled from an offshore jurisdiction (BVI is popular) so was not liable to tax in Ireland (not even withholding tax on the royalties). Abracadabra – a minimal level of taxation in Ireland. Now, the US has, as everybody knows, a fairly draconian system for catching low-tax profits of foreign subsidiaries (Subpart F) in its tax net. The only  part of this scheme requiring intelligence (the American part) required that the lower Irish company check-the-box for US purposes turning it, effectively, into a branch of the other Irish company. The intercompany payments then, if the rumours are true, disappeared for US tax purposes.

The irony of all this is that the Irish might still come out of this laughing. If the scheme is found to be State Aid, Apple may be required to pay an absolute fortune in tax – to the Irish Treasury.  The Irish Government is claiming innocence in the whole matter (it will need to get over the hurdle of how the world’s tax advisers knew what was going on while it didn’t,  AND possibly embarrassing revelations concerning those rulings). Apple, meanwhile, can reasonably claim that it did nothing wrong – a sovereign country (and EU member, to boot) offered it  a favourable ruling.

Workaholics or Alcoholics?

Workaholics or Alcoholics?

The Irish Government has belatedly announced that it is  taking steps to eliminate  the Double Irish – from January 2015 it is proposed that companies incorporated in Ireland will be Irish resident under domestic law.  With headline rates in other jurisdictions brushing against their once incredibly favourable rate, the Irish may have to start doing things for themselves. They could try learning  from the Seven Dwarfs: ‘Hi Ho, Hi Ho, it’s off to work we go’.

Populist leaders are ruled. OK?

G7 Summit Advanced Quiz. The chap from the EU makes it harder to spot the Italian

G7 Summit Advanced Quiz. The chap from the EU makes it harder to spot the Italian

Never one for crosswords or brain teasers, in my younger days I got my quiz kicks from lineups of leaders at  G7 Economic Summits. Always familiar were the Presidents of the US and France, the Chancellor of Germany and the Prime Minister of the UK. The Canadian premier would generally give himself away by the jutting jaw honed by evolution to fell a tree with one bite, while the Japanese PM was invariably, well, Japanese. That left the one  nobody recognized because he had never been in the job more than 3 weeks – the bloke from Italy.

It was nostalgic to view the line-up at the G8 last month – Russia has now come in from the cold – and, as in days of old, stare blankly at the Italian (I still don’t know his name).

Probably because the Summit was in one of the most God forsaken places on Earth (Northern Ireland) – the leaders turned their minds to taxation. A politician trying to deal with taxation is much like a bomb disposal expert trying to deal with unexploded ordnance – only without the expert bit. Those of us deemed by politicians (!!) to be of perverted mind and questionable morality proffer thanks therefore to the Great-Tax-Collector-in-the-Sky for ensuring the issue was kicked into the long grass of this months’s G20 Summit  in the utterly not forsaken St Petersburg (fka Leningrad fka Petrograd fka St Petersburg). Nothing, but nothing, will be achieved there other than strengthening the hand of the OECD. While the tax gurus at the OECD are impossibly slow in arriving at decisions, they do at least understand the intricacies of our ignoble craft and are the best bet the world has for getting things straight.

The communique issued at the end of the G8 Summit listed the three Ts: trade, tax and transparency. In the field of taxation the leaders plan automatic exchange of information between tax authorities as well as a central register of beneficial ownership of companies, both of which should help combat tax evasion – difficult for even the most hardened of tax hacks to argue with . Joining the populist revolt against Multinationals, the leaders declared that “On tax avoidance, we support the OECD’s work to tackle profit shifting and base erosion” – laudably reserved language given that the host of the event, David Cameron, had been quoted in the left-wing Guardian as saying: “Some forms of avoidance have become so aggressive that I think it is right to say these are ethical issues”, while urging multinationals to “wake up and smell the coffee”.

Starbucks HQ

Starbucks HQ

Other than the obviously crude reference to Starbucks who managed to turn the method for making a cup of coffee into low-taxed, high value, intellectual property, I fail to understand what was percolating through  the Prime Minister’s brain when he came up with that daft metaphor. But usage of the term “ethical” in the same sentence as “avoidance” makes my kettle boil.

Does Mr Cameron need reminding that, while he may be in a morganatic marriage with a bunch of toenail-picking lefties, his party is the standard-bearer of Capitalism? Emotive words like “ethical” and “moral”, let alone “avoidance”, do not cosy-up  with “Capitalism”. Capitalism is not an ideology, it is not weighed down with subjective value judgments. The only brakes on Capitalism should be laws passed by parliaments to curb its excesses. A good capitalist will always be looking for ways around restrictions to enhance the march of Capitalism because that is his job. He is naturally centrifugal rather than centripetal. He might throw in a bit of Social Conscience along the way out of the goodness of his throbbing heart – but it is the function of legislatures to rein him in.

While popular protest movements have every right to object to multinationals like Apple, Starbucks, Google and Amazon paying less tax worldwide than Warren Buffett’s secretary, populist leaders and legislatures would do well to take a break from their brown-nosing and reflect on who is really to blame rather than labeling companies”immoral”. If they came up long enough for air they might realize that, instead of  bellyaching with the protesters, it is their job to ensure that the right laws are in place.

If truth be told, the main problem with multinational non-taxation is what that bastion of bankrupt socialism the Guardian angrily identified as “the practice of transfer pricing”. Consistently applied rules across nations by multinationals based on the three pillars of: functions, assets and risk have indeed enhanced the mobility of profits to unlikely corners of the Globe. But who put those nutjob rules in place? Waitforit……the OECD – the darling of the G8 which is now being entrusted with the job of getting all these nasty companies back in line.

The arbiter of morality - the newspaper that supported Hitler and Mussolini in the 1930s

The arbiter of morality – the newspaper that supported Hitler and Mussolini in the 1930s

Accusing an inanimate corporate entity of immorality is beyond the realms of even my fertile imagination, but if the OECD is to get anywhere “before”, as Mr Cameron might have said, “the coffee goes cold”, all 34 member governments plus others with observer status are going to need to instruct their international tax teams to cooperate beyond their narrow interests to arrive at rules that are workable and fair in a multinational context. Experience to date does not  bode well for the future. In the meantime governments should accept that, in the interests of capitalism, the tax fraternity will continue to seek out loopholes as they seek to maximise market efficiency. Brains and pens at the ready. Let the battle begin.

Letter to America

Minister For (sic) Finance, Republic of Ireland

June 1, 2013

Mr Seamus Noonan, Boston MA, USA

Dear Seamus,

Mother Ireland is being crucified once again and she is hurting, to be sure. I was walking past the General Post Office on O’Connell Street yesterday when old Stephen Megan accosted me: ” What’s all this about Apples, young Michael?” he growled, he did. “Were not the good old earth apples our ancestors died for in the famine good enough for the likes of you? Don’t you remember what the Church says about the Forbidden Fruit and the  Fall of  Man?  If poor Patrick Pearse had been standing over there in 1916 (he waved a finger at the entrance to the Post Office) reading out loud the Easter Proclamation, and he had known what you were going to do, he would have folded it up – he would truly – and gone back inside to post it to his mother. Then the British wouldn’t  have executed him and all our beloved martyrs.”

And just last Sunday I was queuing up after Mass to speak to Father O’Leary (he is new to the Parish since Father Callaghan had to go away because of something we don’t talk about), when Mam and Da’s friend Mrs Flaherty started bawling at me at the top of her voice: “Michael Noonan. You are a disgrace to our country. Why did we have to lend all that money from the Yooropeeans? You were an Altar Boy, Michael Noonan (at this point Father O’Leary shuffled uneasily from one foot to the other). You know that the  Church loves thrift – but you had to try to be like the Yooropeeans. That poor De Valera will be turning in his grave”. I thought of telling her that I had not been in the Government when the crisis hit, but she was looking like our mother used to look when our father came home from the pub, so I held my peace.

Talking of pubs (which is always a comfort, so it is), last month the barmaid was just pulling me my first pint at a nice little establishment in the centre of the City when a leprachaun-sized fella in a grey suit and coiffed hair holding a glass of red wine, tapped me on my arm and asked in an accent not from around these parts : “Qu’est que vous doing with a 12.5% tax rate, screwing the rest of us in L’Europe, cochon?”. I politely explained how a wine suppository could cure the little reptile’s  constipation and went to join friends – but it was disconcerting, that it was.

Seamus, it’s just not fair. We are being made to suffer for all mankind. Well brother, I have decided that we are going to take action. You are going to be St Paul  spreading the gospel and putting the record straight once and for all. Next time you are in Paddy O’s in Boston’s fair city,  buy a round for all our brothers and cousins  (I enclose a 50 Punt  note as a Government contribution to the cause) and then sit them down by the fire and tell them Ireland’s  tale of woe. Add a bit o’ the ol’ blarney and, if any of the Kennedys, Connellys or O’Neils are listening you can tell them that the next time they are running Washington, they should tell our story to the world:

When Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973 together with Britain and Denmark she had an economy that was worth bugger all. Her biggest export was people, who built the whole world except the Great Wall of China and the Pyramids in Egypt. One day someone had a great idea to lower the corporate tax rate to 12.5%. American companies  competed with each other to swim across the Atlantic and set up operations here. Nobody could nail us on the tax rate because we offered it to everyone – Irish and others alike. We were willing to pay the price of less welfare payments because we had been raised by the Fathers and Sisters  not to expect much. Of course, there were other reasons those companies chose Ireland. There were lots of the Irish in America and, when we were sober, we spoke something resembling the same language. This got up everybody’s nose in Europe but the only concrete response was the French building Euro Disney.

In 2008, when the financial crisis hit, the Irish government’s finances were healthy. Our Budget Deficit was manageable as was the Debt – GDP Ratio. What was not healthy was the private housing market where the banks were overexposed. We should have remembered our Bible lessons and what happened to the tables of the money changers in the Temple. Not wanting to leave the banks to tumble,the government rescued them – and that left the government totally buggered. So they had to take a loan from the EU (usury is, I confess, a dreadful sin) and impose austerity – which was the nostalgic fun part for most of the population. Unlike other crisis countries, within 2 years Ireland was proudly back on track.

So everything was starting to chug along beautifully when, last week, some  brightsparks in Washington started asking Apple questions. In fact, the gentlemen were very polite to Apple, praising it for its iconic status in the US economy. But, their largesse did not extend to poor Ireland. We were flayed mercilessly for tempting the little Innocent with Government-backed tax schemes that brought the tax rate down from the lofty 12.5% to 2%. There was talk of Double-Irish structures (believe me Seamus, the only Double-Irish I know is a 12 year Bushmill’s Single Malt – and very good it is too) with companies registered in Ireland but not resident there and subsidiaries that shared American research and development costs.

Tell me, Seamus, was this not the hypocrisy that the Church tried to exorcise from God’s Earth? Ireland, a country with a legitimate 12.5% tax rate being used by Americans taking advantage of all the vagaries of  OECD guidelines and idiotic US tax law – and it was our fault! Look across Europe at their special R&D rates and Finance Company rates and Heaven knows what else.

Seamus, it is time for us to act. Starting spreading the pints. The spirit of 1916 is back!

Your loving brother

Michael

P.S. You couldn’t see your way to picking me up a new iPhone from the local Apple Store the next time you’re there, could you?

P.P.S. The characters and events in this letter are fictitious. I do not have a clue if the Minister For (sic) Finance has a brother, had parents or, most notably, what (if anything) he actually said to that  Sarkozy look-a-like  in the pub.

Tax Wars: The Authorities Strike Back

Gagwriter extraordinaire

Gagwriter extraordinaire

Suicide is not a laughing matter. Last week marked fifty years since American poet, Sylvia Plath, took her own life, and the benefit-of-hindsight news stories on the subject were uniformly depressing. It is interesting, therefore, that one of the most successful comedy series in television history opened each week with a song about suicide. Thirty years ago this month  Alan Alda climbed into a helicopter, circled over an improvised “Good-bye” message set in the Korean soil, and, together with M*A*S*H,  flew into the sunset.

It transpires that, after seeing the 1970 film,  it was “Suicide is painless” with such cheerful lines as: ” The game of life is hard to play, I’m gonna lose it anyway”,  that inspired Larry Gelbart to script and produce a TV series. Played in a minor key, the melancholy tune exposed the funny, but almost tasteless lyrics, as pure irony – the song was anti-war. Screened when the Vietnam war was at its most painful to the American people (not to mention, the collaterally damaged residents of Cambodia and Laos), Gelbart fought with CBS over the infantile canned laughter that was shoe-horned into every pathetically unfunny US comedy series of the time – noting that there was no canned laughter in the real Korean War. He ultimately achieved a compromise whereby he was allowed to omit the puerile cackling from operating theatre scenes (MASH stood for Mobile Army Surgical Hospital). It is to Gelbart’s  credit that he managed, like his subsequent triumph with Dustin Hoffman’s cross-dressing “Tootsie”, to avoid turning the whole thing into a sick (sic)  joke.

We tax planners, of sedentary build and heavier step, are sometimes less nimble with our words and actions. Tax planning can sometimes be a sick joke, warranting a single finger salute down one’s own throat. Take Spain, for example (sometimes, I wish they would).

If they consider this fair, no wonder they don't pay tax

If they consider this fair, no wonder they don’t pay tax

When the Spanish Government hiked the VAT rate to 21% last September as part of the austerity programme resulting from the Euro crisis, a theatre in a small town in Catalonia found a way round the increase. Staple foods were still only liable to 4% VAT, so the theatre owner received permission from the town council to set up a vegetable stall outside the box office, where theatregoers could purchase a carrot for €15 – €17 inclusive of 4% VAT (the difference arising, presumably, from variances in size of the carrot). Free with the carrot came a theatre ticket. It is understood that, prior to the commencement of performances, patrons were asked – in addition to turning off their mobile phones – not to munch their carrots (which, apart from the noise, presumably might be needed for re-admission if they popped out in the interval). Had I been the Spanish authorities, I would have garotted the lot of them and fed them to the bulls.

This kind of shtick gives tax planning a bad name. It is the equivalent of throwing a custard pie in the face of the government to the accompaniment of pathetic (canned) laughter or, to be more on topic, spitting out a liquidised carrot giving the “hilarious”  impression of spontaneous vomiting. Yuck!

It appears, strangely,  that there is nothing illegal in what the Catalonian Jesters did. On the other hand this kind of tax avoidance is definitely way beyond the parameters of what members of  the Spanish Cortes had in mind when they conjured up the legislation.

There are currently moves around the globe to curb excessive tax avoidance, in the form of General Anti Avoidance Rules (universally known by the acronym GAAR, which onomatopoecially  sounds pretty much like someone with a single finger stuck down his throat).

Britain’s new rules should enter into force in the next few months while India, to the relief of foreign investors still digesting the Vodafone case, has delayed implementation until 2016. Australia and New Zealand have had rules for donkey’s years while Canada came on board in the 1980s and China a couple of years ago. The US has something  slightly different because the US always has something slightly different.

Occasionally, committees have been known to do a good job

Occasionally, committees have been known to do a good job

Although, in principle, the GAAR is a pretty slam dunk concept, it is in practice highly controversial. On the one hand governments need to be able to curb the most blatantly aggressive tax planning; on the other, investors and businessmen crave certainty while a GAAR instills fear (often justified) that virtually everything is up for grabs. Methods to try and achieve maximum fairness include having a regular tax authority committee, rather than individual tax officers, to decide on GAAR cases accompanied by very narrowly defined terms for applying the GAAR. Ultimately, the GAAR is, by definition, subjective and there cannot be any perfect answer. It depends from which angle you look at it, and both tax authorities and tax advisers often contort themselves into the strangest of poses to obtain the weirdest of views.

With all the drama of the tax wars (dear reader, allow me my fantasies) it is probably high time  for a TV spin-off of another major film. How about the mega-successful, Les Miserables ? The tax profession would be very happy with the current cast – Hugh Jackman as the morally superior tax planner Jean Valjean making the world a better place and Russell Crowe as the stickler-for-the-letter-of-the-law tax enforcer Javert. The world’s tax authorities might, however, have a problem with this. They are more likely to go for the late Heath Ledger, with a bucket of make-up thrown over his head and an entire red lipstick smeared over his lips, as a psychotic Valjean and Christian Bale as the black-caped saviour of the universe. Had Larry Gelbart still been around to take on the project, he would have been challenged by “One day more”. Written in a major key, it includes the sickest of Javert’s lines  “I will join these little schoolboys, they will wet themselves with blood”. On second thoughts, maybe he would have just turned up the canned laughter and comforted himself with the fact that all the characters were French.

World without borders

German parachutist infiltrates London Olympics

Blitzing Mannheim last Tuesday in advance of a meeting the following morning, I soon tired of the centre of town with its Water Tower, Paradeplatz  and street names like P3 and Q5. Settling  into my hotel room, I turned on the TV. Confronted by Mary Poppins dubbed into German – at least in British war movies they made the Germans speak English with a middle-European accent – I decided to chance my luck with the radio embedded in the dashboard next to the bed.

Where is the Turkish music?

The radio was an experience in itself, bringing back memories of the car radios of my childhood. By rotating a knob a red plastic marker glided along the horizontal dial – there were no pre-tuned stations. Trying FM first and fully expecting to be blasted by Beethoven or Bach at every stroke of the knob, the only music I hit upon was a Turkish pop channel. My opinion of Turkish music was formed in the era before public voting in the Eurovision Song Contest when Turkish singers were considered national heroes if they scored any points at all; evolution definitely rid Turks of the music gene. But it was medium wave where the fun really started. As I moved between wavelengths in the hope of colliding with the BBC World Service, I listened to the whistles and wooshes as stations slowly appeared out of the audio fog and then receded again into obscurity. It occurred to me that seventy years ago across that embattled continent many would have searched for Alvar Lidell broadcasting from London with the only reliable news of the day, as Goebbels’s propaganda machine churned out its incessant lies.

In fact,  as competitors from CNN to Sky to Fox entered the market, the BBC  always managed to retain its name as the world’s number one reliable news source in the broadcast media. A quarter of a century after leaving the borders of that green and pleasant land, the BBC is still for me, in the words of WH Auden, “My north, my south, my east and west”.

Bond Girl – born 1926

However, a foul wind may be blowing through the Beeb’s corridors. There was the mildest hint at the spectacular opening ceremony of the London Olympics last weekend. In a move that would have done justice to the Beijing Olympics four years ago, the allegedly Marxist director Danny Boyle managed to ignore the Empire (too insulting to some) and  World War II (too insulting to one) even though, thanks to the former, London is today the most truly cosmopolitan city in the world and, thanks to the latter, it was not difficult to find a site for the Olympics in East London since the Luftwaffe had done a pretty good demolition job seven decades earlier. Meanwhile, Boyle took  neatly choreographed digs at some British sacred cows – the Queen and the BBC among them.

Bond Girl – born 1925

Few non-Brits or those under 40 would have paid any attention to a flash of legendary BBC weather forecaster Michael Fish from 1987 publicly informing a woman who had called that day that she need not worry about a rumoured Hurricane on its way to Britain – you see, there had not been a Hurricane in Britain for some 300 years. Well, when I woke up the following morning and ventured outside, I discovered  that a tree had taken root in my neighbour’s roof and the street was littered with debris. Miraculously, the Hurricane – hitting around 3am in the morning – had killed nobody.

The BBC’s continuing fall from papal infallibility came home to me a few weeks ago when they ran an item on the news declaring that, according to a new study, at least $21 trillion of assets are being managed in tax havens. The item went on to explain that this was bigger than the US and Japanese economies combined and this tax black hole could solve lots of the world’s economic problems. We were told that the study was written by James Henry, former Chief Economist of McKinsey and Co for the influential Tax Justice Network.  And to make sure that the BBC would be viewed as thorough, they even interviewed a British tax expert who said that, while he could not disprove the figures, they seemed very big (rocket science collides with taxation once again).

His brain hurts

As an international tax geek this item was clearly of real interest to me so, hard-wired with my 20th century education that insists I independently check all facts, I went searching for the influential Tax Justice Network and this important study. Well, the website can best be described as the on-line equivalent of “Behind the wash basins at Waterloo Station”. Getting a real feel for who and what this organization purports to be was not easy (although I think I got there in the end). Most worrying of all, the study “The Price of Offshore Revisited” was not yet available. What was there (after a virtual treasure hunt) was a  brief press release which the BBC seemed to have quoted faithfully and mindlessly. Taking a look at the BBC website version of the item, I realised that the tax expert consulted as possible counterweight to the report, had clearly seen even less than the BBC. All he seemed to be saying was – “Blimey, that number is too big to make sense”.

I kept revisiting the site in search of “The Price of Offshore Revisited” until, last week – Eureka! – I found it , albeit off site. Mr Henry’s study was, indeed, interesting reading  and he is clearly a serious dude. While he arrives at some interesting conclusions, including that – in the absence of an offshore industry – emerging nations that are currently debtor nations would turn into creditor nations (which, Mr Henry, I don’t think would have a causal effect on credit unless, horror of horrors, exchange restrictions were imposed or, as you seem to discount, material sums found their way back as investment in the source country), his central thesis is something known to everyone – that the amount of tax being avoided or evaded in emerging countries would potentially have a major positive impact on their economies.

One-man balance of payments problem

I took something else away from this study, however. It is a regular chant of the Libertarians that use of offshores in tax avoidance (as opposed to tax evasion) schemes is highly moral since any diversion of funds from Big Bad Government to private hands will increase the efficiency of the economy. Even leaving aside the specific woes of emerging countries stripped of basic tax revenues it appears, according to the report, that money parked in offshores is generally invested in low-risk investments – if a wealthy investor wants to take risks he is happy to do that in the full view of his government (of which, he might be a member). So, while these trillions of dollars may serve to lower interest rates in the world economy they are essentially crowding out private investment by pension funds, insurance companies etcetera that need low risk investments while depriving the world of much needed risk capital – potential “creative destruction” that  Joseph Schumpeter declared so critical to the future of a free market economy.

Overall, the BBC, along with some American news companies that picked up the story at the same time,  did a pathetic job here and would have been well served to wait for the report. It is perhaps not a coincidence that the BBC has adopted an American term in recent years: “BREAKING NEWS”. As an expatriate who relies on the BBC, would it be too much to ask that it keep the News WHOLE?

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